Pico is a millionth of a millionth, micro is a millionth. Converting from picofarads to microfarads: from small units to larger units, requires fewer digits, decimal point moves to the left by SIX positions, a MILLION times less.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Micro is a millionth, milli is a thousandth. Converting from microhenrys to millihenrys: from small units to larger units, requires fewer digits, decimal point moves to the left by three positions, a thousand times less.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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key words: SERIES INDUCTORS. Inductors (coils) in combinations obey rules similar to resistors. In SERIES, the total value is the sum of the values. In PARALLEL combination with components of IDENTICAL values, the total value is the value of one component divided by the number in the circuit.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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key words: PARALLEL INDUCTORS. Inductors (coils) in combinations obey rules similar to resistors. In PARALLEL combination with components of IDENTICAL values, the total value is the value of one component divided by the number in the circuit. In SERIES, the total value is the sum of the values.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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key words: SERIES CAPACITORS. Capacitors behave OPPOSITE TO INDUCTORS. Capacitors add up in parallel combinations BUT the total value is less than the smallest in a series combination. With identical CAPACITORS in SERIES, the total value is the value of one component divided by the number in the circuit.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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key words: PARALLEL CAPACITORS. Capacitors behave OPPOSITE TO INDUCTORS. With CAPACITORS in PARALLEL, the total value is the sum of the values. Picture in your head, the area of the plates growing as more and more capacitors are added in parallel. More plate area, more capacity.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Inductance in a coil is due to the interaction of the magnetic fields from one turn to the others. The ease of setting up a magnetic field through a suitable core material, the relative position of the turns (diameter and length) and the number of turns all contribute to inductance.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A simple capacitor is two plates next to one another. The material used as a dielectric to insulate the two plates and the distance between the plates influence the importance of the electric field that can be set-up. The area and number of plates multiply the capacitance effect.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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key words: PARALLEL CAPACITORS. Capacitors behave OPPOSITE TO INDUCTORS. With CAPACITORS in PARALLEL, the total value is the sum of the values. Picture in your head, the area of the plates growing as more and more capacitors are added in parallel. More plate area, more capacity.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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key words: SERIES INDUCTORS. Inductors (coils) in combinations obey rules similar to resistors. In SERIES, the total value is the sum of the values.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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key words: SERIES CAPACITORS. Capacitors behave OPPOSITE TO INDUCTORS. Capacitors add up in parallel combinations BUT the total value is less than the smallest in a series combination. With identical CAPACITORS in SERIES, the total value is the value of one component divided by the number in the circuit.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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key words: SERIES CAPACITORS. Capacitors behave OPPOSITE TO INDUCTORS. Capacitors add up in parallel combinations BUT the total value is less than the smallest in a series combination. With identical CAPACITORS in SERIES, the total value is the value of one component divided by the number in the circuit. [ capacitors in series might be useful to augment the overall voltage rating ]
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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key words: SERIES CAPACITORS. Capacitors behave OPPOSITE TO INDUCTORS. Capacitors add up in parallel combinations BUT the total value is less than the smallest in a series combination. With identical CAPACITORS in SERIES, the total value is the value of one component divided by the number in the circuit.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Reactance is opposition. XL = 2 * PI * f * L. Inductive reactance = two times PI (i.e., 3.14) times frequency in hertz times inductance in henrys. Reactance (opposition) is not influenced by the amplitude of the applied voltage. If frequency goes up, inductive reactance goes up. Intuitively, the higher the frequency (i.e., rate of change), the more significant become the counter-currents induced in adjacent turns.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Reactance is opposition. XC = 1 over ( 2 * PI * f * C ). Capacitive Reactance = 1 over the product of 'two times PI (i.e., 3.14) times frequency in hertz times capacitance in farads'. A behaviour opposite to inductors. Reactance (opposition) is not influenced by the amplitude of the applied voltage. If frequency goes up, capacitive reactance goes down. Intuitively, the more frequent the change of polarity (AC changes polarity every half-cycle), the more incessant becomes the charge/discharge current, current never seems to stop, less apparent opposition to current flow.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Reactance is opposition. XC = 1 over ( 2 * PI * f * C ). Capacitive Reactance = 1 over the product of 'two times PI (i.e., 3.14) times frequency in hertz times capacitance in farads'. A behaviour opposite to inductors. Reactance (opposition) is not influenced by the amplitude of the applied voltage. If frequency goes up, capacitive reactance goes down. Intuitively, the more frequent the change of polarity (AC changes polarity every half-cycle), the more incessant becomes the charge/discharge current, current never seems to stop, less apparent opposition to current flow.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Impedance is measured in ohms. It is the combined effect of reactance(s) and resistance. Resistance affects DC and AC equally. Reactance is a property only present under AC. [ DC = direct current, AC = alternating current ]
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Reactance is opposition. XC = 1 over ( 2 * PI * f * C ). Capacitive Reactance = 1 over the product of 'two times PI (i.e., 3.14) times frequency in hertz times capacitance in farads'. A behaviour opposite to inductors. Reactance (opposition) is not influenced by the amplitude of the applied voltage. If frequency goes up, capacitive reactance goes down. Intuitively, the more frequent the change of polarity (AC changes polarity every half-cycle), the more incessant becomes the charge/discharge current, current never seems to stop, less apparent opposition to current flow.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Reactance is opposition. XL = 2 * PI * f * L. Inductive reactance = two times PI (i.e., 3.14) times frequency in hertz times inductance in henrys. Reactance (opposition) is not influenced by the amplitude of the applied voltage. If frequency goes up, inductive reactance goes up. Intuitively, the higher the frequency (i.e., rate of change), the more significant become the counter-currents induced in adjacent turns.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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The coil (inductor) when dealing with an offending radio signal: chokes-off radio frequency (high reactance), but passes audio frequencies (low reactance). Recall that the opposition of a coil to AC current flow (inductive reactance) grows as frequency increases.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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The bypass capacitor must provide a low impedance path for an offending signal without affecting lower frequency signals: low reactance for radio frequency, high reactance for audio. Recall that the opposition of a capacitor to AC current flow (capacitive reactance) decreases as frequency goes up.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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The bypass capacitor must provide a low impedance path for an offending signal without affecting lower frequency signals: low reactance for radio frequency, high reactance for audio. Recall that the opposition of a capacitor to AC current flow (capacitive reactance) decreases as frequency goes up.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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The coil (inductor) when dealing with an offending radio signal: chokes-off radio frequency (high reactance), but passes audio frequencies (low reactance). Recall that the opposition of a coil to AC current flow (inductive reactance) grows as frequency increases.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Reactance is opposition. XL = 2 * PI * f * L. Inductive reactance = two times PI (i.e., 3.14) times frequency in hertz times inductance in henrys. Reactance (opposition) is not influenced by the amplitude of the applied voltage. If frequency goes up, inductive reactance goes up. Intuitively, the higher the frequency (i.e., rate of change), the more significant become the counter-currents induced in adjacent turns.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Even if no current is drawn from the secondary of the transformer, the primary winding remains an inductor. It lets some AC current through despite its reactance. This minimal current is called "Magnetizing current".
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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As work is performed at a lower voltage on the secondary side, current on the secondary is larger. The turns ratio is '20 to 1' ( 240 volts to 12 volts ), the current ratio follows the inverse of that ratio: 20 * 0.25 amperes = 5 amperes. Method B: Primary consumes 60 watts ( 240 volts * 0.25 amperes ), secondary must draw that same power (discounting losses). What is the secondary current for 60 watts at 12 volts ? I = P / E (derived from P = E * I), I = 60 watts / 12 volts = 5 amperes.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A 'step-up' transformer, the secondary uses twice as many turns as the primary, voltage is doubled ( exactly per the turns ratio ).
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Current and magnetism are closely related: current in a conductor sets up a magnetic field, dropping a conductor through magnetic lines of force creates a current. Voltage which would only be of concern for an electrical field. Reference to the conductor's diameter is a useless clue.
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For induction to take place in a wire, a conductor must be subjected to a moving magnetic field (no movement, no induction). Either the conductor must move in the magnetic field OR the magnetic field must move if the conductor is immobile. If current changes drastically within a short period of time ('rate of change'), the magnetic field around the conductor changes rapidly, induction is maximized.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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For induction to be maximum, the conductor must "cut" through the lines of magnetic force. Dropping through perpendicularly (at 90 degrees) through the magnetic field maximizes induction.
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A turns ratio of '1 to 5' indicates a 'step-up' transformer, primary current will be larger than the secondary current by the inverse of that ratio. In this example, primary current is 5 * times 50 mA = 250 milliamperes = 0.25 amperes. Transformers do not "create" power out of nothing, the power ( E * I ) flowing into the primary equals the power drawn by the secondary plus losses (which are ignored for the sake of simplicity). For power to remain "comparable" on both sides of the transformer, current goes up if voltage increases and vice-versa.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Resonance is the condition where Inductive Reactance (XL) is equal in value to Capacitive Reactance (XC). For a given Inductance (L, a coil or inductor) and Capacitance (C, a capacitor), resonance happens at one frequency: the resonant frequency. At resonance, the two reactances cancel each other, only resistance is left in the circuit.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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key words: PARALLEL, TUNED. Question refers to Resonance. The one frequency at which Inductive Reactance cancels Capacitive Reactance. In a PARALLEL circuit, Impedance (Z) at resonance is HIGH ( series circuit will be the opposite ). As a memory aid, try to visualize the PARALLEL circuit as a tub or tank, signals get trapped at resonance. Try to visualize the SERIES circuit as a slim tube, signals slip right through at resonance.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Resonance is the condition where Inductive Reactance (XL) is equal in value to Capacitive Reactance (XC). For a given Inductance (L, a coil or inductor) and Capacitance (C, a capacitor), resonance happens at one frequency: the resonant frequency. At resonance, the two reactances cancel each other, only resistance is left in the circuit.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A 'tuned' circuit is a synonym for a 'resonant' circuit. Resonance is the condition where Inductive Reactance (XL) is equal in value to Capacitive Reactance (XC). Inductors and Capacitors alone determine the resonant frequency of a circuit.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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key words: COIL, CAPACITOR. A 'tuned' circuit. Question refers to Resonance. The one frequency at which Inductive Reactance cancels Capacitive Reactance. In a PARALLEL circuit, Impedance (Z) at resonance is HIGH ( series circuit will be the opposite ). As a memory aid, try to visualize the PARALLEL circuit as a tub or tank, signals get trapped at resonance. Try to visualize the SERIES circuit as a slim tube, signals slip right through at resonance.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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key words: PARALLEL, RESONANT. Question refers to Resonance. The one frequency at which Inductive Reactance cancels Capacitive Reactance. In a PARALLEL circuit, Impedance (Z) at resonance is HIGH ( series circuit will be the opposite ). As a memory aid, try to visualize the PARALLEL circuit as a tub or tank, signals get trapped at resonance. Try to visualize the SERIES circuit as a slim tube, signals slip right through at resonance.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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key words: SERIES, RESONANT. Question refers to Resonance. The one frequency at which Inductive Reactance cancels Capacitive Reactance. In a SERIES circuit, Impedance (Z) at resonance is LOW ( parallel circuit will be the opposite ). If Impedance is low (little total opposition), current will be high. As a memory aid, try to visualize the SERIES circuit as a slim tube, signals slip right through at resonance. Try to visualize the PARALLEL circuit as a tub or tank, signals get trapped at resonance.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Resonance is affected exclusively by Inductance (L in henrys for inductors) and Capacitance ( C in farads for capacitors ). Capacitance is affected by the area of the plates and the choice of dielectric. Inductance is affected by the number of turns in a coil.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Resonance is the condition where Inductive Reactance (XL) is equal in value to Capacitive Reactance (XC). For a given Inductance (L, a coil or inductor) and Capacitance (C, a capacitor), resonance happens at one frequency: the resonant frequency. At resonance, the two reactances cancel each other, only resistance is left in the circuit.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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key words: SERIES, TUNED. Question refers to Resonance. The one frequency at which Inductive Reactance cancels Capacitive Reactance. In a SERIES circuit, Impedance (Z) at resonance is LOW ( parallel circuit will be the opposite ). If Impedance is low (little total opposition), current will be high. As a memory aid, try to visualize the SERIES circuit as a slim tube, signals slip right through at resonance. Try to visualize the PARALLEL circuit as a tub or tank, signals get trapped at resonance.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Impedance Match: maximum power transfer occurs when the impedance of the load matches the internal impedance of the source. For example, a transmitter designed to work into an impedance of 50 ohms, will delivered maximum power if the antenna system offers an impedance of 50 ohms.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Impedance Match: maximum power transfer occurs when the impedance of the load matches the internal impedance of the source. For example, a transmitter designed to work into an impedance of 50 ohms, will delivered maximum power if the antenna system offers an impedance of 50 ohms.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Impedance Match: maximum power transfer occurs when the impedance of the load matches the internal impedance of the source. For example, a transmitter designed to work into an impedance of 50 ohms, will delivered maximum power if the antenna system offers an impedance of 50 ohms.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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